ARTICLE #1 Soy Infant Formula
ARTICLE #2 Tragedy and Hype
ARTICLE #3 Soy Shrinks the Brain
ARTICLE #4 Some Soy is Good, Some Soy is Bad
ARTICLE #6 Soy, the Thyroid, and Weight Gain
ARTICLE #7 Soy: The Poison Seed
ARTICLE #8 The Truth About Soy
ARTICLE #9 Shocking Soy!
by Sally Fallon
An estimated 25% of North American babies receive infant formula made from processed soybeans. Parents use soy formula in the belief that is it healthier than formula based on cows' milk. Soy promotional material claims that soy provides complete protein that is less allergenic than cows' milk protein. When soy infant formula first became commercially available, manufacturers even promised that soy formula was "better than breast milk."
Parents have a right to know how these extravagant claims compare to scientific findings related to soy infant formula.
While soybeans are relatively high in protein compared to other legumes, scientists have long recognized them as a poor source of protein because other proteins found in soybeans act as potent enzyme inhibitors. These "antinutrients" block the action of trypsin and other enzymes needed for protein digestion. In test animals, diets high in trypsin inhibitors depress growth and cause enlargement and pathological conditions of the pancreas, including cancer.
The soy industry recognizes that trypsin inhibitors are a problem in infant formula and have spent millions of dollars to determine the best way to remove them. Trypsin inhibitors are large, tightly folded proteins that are only deactivated after a considerable period of heat treatment. This process removes mostbut not allof the trypsin inhibitors, but has the unfortunate side effect of over-denaturing the other proteins in soy, particularly lysine, rendering them difficult to digest and possibly toxic. Even in low amounts, trypsin inhibitors prevented normal growth in rats.
The main ingredient in soy infant formula is soy protein isolate, a powder extracted from soybeans through a process that involves not only high temperatures but also caustic chemicals. The alkaline soaking solution produces a carcinogen, lysinealine, and reduces the cystine content, which is already low in the soybean. Other carcinogens called nitrosamines are formed during high temperature spray drying.
Soybeans also contain high levels of phytic acid or phytates. This is an organic acid, present in the outer portion of all seeds, which blocks the uptake of essential minerals-calcium, magnesium, iron and especially zinc-in the intestinal tract. Soybeans have very high levels of a form of phytic acid that is particularly difficult to neutralize. As early as 1967, researchers testing soy formula found that it caused negative zinc balance in every infant to whom it was given. Scientists have found a strong correlation between phytate content in formula and poor growth, even when the diets were additionally supplemented with zinc. High amounts of phytic acid in soy foods and grains have caused retarded growth in children on macrobiotic diets. A reduced rate of growth is especially serious in the infant as it causes a delay in the accumulation of lipids in the myelin, and hence jeopardizes the development of the brain and nervous system.
Soy formula can also cause vitamin deficiencies. Soy increases the body's requirements for vitamin B12, a nutrient that is absolutely vital for good health. Early studies with soy formula indicated that soy blocks the uptake of fats. This may explain why soy seems to increase the body's requirements for fat-soluble vitamin D.
Aluminum content of soy formula is 10 times greater than milk based formula, and 100 times greater than unprocessed milk. Aluminum has a toxic effect on the kidneys of infants, and has been implicated as causing Alzheimer's in adults. Soy formulas lack cholesterol, another nutrient that is absolutely essential for the development of the brain and nervous system; they also lack lactose and galactose, which play an equally important role in the development of the nervous system. A number of other substances, which are unnecessary and of questionable safety, are added to soy formulas including carrageenan, guar gum, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), potassium citrate monohydrate, tricalcium phosphate, dibasic magnesium phosphate trihydrate, BHA and BHT.
What about the claim that soy formula is less allergenic than cows milk formula? Studies indicate that allergies to soy are almost as common as those to milk. Use of soy formula to treat infant diarrhea has had mixed results, some studies showing improvement with soy formula while others show none at all.
The most serious problem with soy formula is the presence of phytoestrogens or isoflavones. While many claims have been made about the health benefits of these estrogen-like compounds, animal studies indicate that they are powerful endocrine disrupters that alter growth patterns and cause sterility. Toxicologists estimate that an infant exclusively fed soy formula receives the estrogenic equivalent of at least five birth control pills per day. By contrast, almost no phytoestrogens have been detected in dairy-based infant formula or in human milk, even when the mother consumes soy products. A recent study found that babies fed soy-based formula had 13,000 to 22,0000 times more isoflavones in their blood than babies fed milk-based formula. Scientists have known for years that isoflavones in soy products can depress thyroid function, causing autoimmune thyroid disease and even cancer of the thyroid. But what are the effects of soy products on the hormonal development of the infant, both male and female?
Male infants undergo a "testosterone surge" during the first few months of life, when testosterone levels may be as high as those of an adult male. During this period, the infant is programed to express male characteristics after puberty, not only in the development of his sexual organs and other masculine physical traits, but also in setting patterns in the brain characteristic of male behavior. In monkeys, deficiency of male hormones impairs learning and the ability to perform visual discrimination tasks-such as would be required for reading-and retards the development of spatial perception, which is normally more acute in men than in women.
It goes without saying that future patterns of sexual orientation may also be influenced by the early hormonal environment. Pediatricians are noticing greater numbers of boys whose physical maturation is delayed, or does not occur at all, including lack of development of the sexual organs. Learning disabilities, especially in male children, have reached epidemic proportions. Soy infant feeding-which floods the bloodstream with female hormones that could inhibit the effects of male hormones-cannot be ignored as a possible cause for these tragic developments.
As for girls, an alarming number are entering puberty much earlier than normal, according to a recent study reported in the journal Pediatrics. Investigators found that one percent of all girls now show signs of puberty, such as breast development or pubic hair, before the age of three; by age eight, 14.7 percent of white girls and a whopping 48.3 percent of African-American girls had one or both of these characteristics. New data indicate that environmental estrogens such as PCBs and DDE (a breakdown product of DDT) may cause early sexual development in girls and a study in Puerto Rico implicated soy feeding as a cause of early menarche. The use of soy formula in the WIC program, which supplies free formula to welfare mothers, may explain the astronomical rates of early menarche in African American girls.
The consequences are tragic. Young girls with mature bodies must cope with feelings and urges that most children are not well-equipped to handle. And early maturation in girls is frequently a harbinger for problems with the reproductive system later in life including failure to menstruate, infertility and breast cancer.
Other problems that have been anecdotally associated with children of both sexes who were fed soy-based formula include extreme emotional behavior, asthma, immune system problems, pituitary insufficiency, thyroid disorders and irritable bowel syndrome.
Concerns about the dangers of soy have prompted consumer groups in New Zealand and Canada to call for a ban on the sale of soy infant formula. Milk-based formula contains a better protein profile and does not flood the infant with antinutrients and female hormones. Breast feeding is best IF the mother has consumed a healthy diet, one that is rich in animal proteins and fats, throughout her pregnancy and continues to do so while nursing her infant. Mothers who cannot breast feed, for whatever reason, should prepare homemade formula based on whole milk for their babies. The rare child allergic to whole milk formula should be given a whole foods meat-based formula, not one made of soy protein isolate. Parents who invest time in preparing homemade formula will be well rewarded with the joys of conferring robust good health on their children.
The Weston A. Price Foundation is undertaking a new initiative to investigate instances and arrange possible legal assistance for individuals who believe that they or their child may have suffered serious physical or medical consequences as a result of ingesting one or more products containing soy.
A growing body of credible medical and dietary research suggests that soy products may cause adverse medical and developmental conditions in susceptible persons, especially children who in some instances may be affected by soy products consumed either by themselves (for instance, in baby formula) or by their mothers prior to giving birth.
The Weston A. Price Foundation is exploring the causal connection between soy and various serious conditions see attached listing. We have also sought out competent attorneys in the United States and elsewhere, who may develop medical evidence in a number of these cases to pursue damages or other appropriate remedies against the manufacturers and sellers of soy products.
If you would like to participate in these efforts, we urge you to contact the Weston A. Price Foundation at email@example.com . Upon receipt of your e-mail, we will forward you, via e-mail with attachments, a questionnaire and release form. We urge you to complete the questionnaire, fully and honestly, to the best of your ability. Also, please sign and return the medical authorization(s) along with the questionnaire, in order that we might gather relevant medical records in those cases that warrant further investigation. Mailing address and fax number will be provided to you with the questionnaire.
PLEASE BE ADVISED that not all of these potential claims can or will be pursued, even if we conclude that you or your child may have suffered some adverse effects from the consumption of soy products. It may be too late under applicable state laws to pursue some claims; and in other cases, the parties responsible for your condition may not be adequately identified, or the recoverable damages may not warrant pursuit of the responsible parties.
However, if you would like us to conduct a preliminary investigation of the circumstances of your potential claim, without cost or obligation to you, then promptly contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org . We hope to be able to assist you in this matter, if our inquiry develops evidence of corporate responsibility for your medical problems or those of your child.
Please forward this e-mail to anyone you think may have an interest, including other e-mail lists that you belong to.
Sally A. Fallon, President
Weston A. Price Foundation
PARTIAL LIST OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING SOY
Meal Replacement Beverages
Snack/Energy Bars containing soy products
Soy-based Breads or breads containing soy flour
Soy Ice Cream
Soy Infant Formula
Soy Isoflavone Supplements
Textured Vegetable Protein
MEDICAL CONDITIONS POSSIBLY ATTRIBUTABLE TO SOY CONSUMPTION
Heart or Liver Disease
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Premature or Delayed Puberty
Auto-Immune Thyroid Disorders (Graves’ or Hashimoto’s Disease)
Other thyroid disorders
SYMPTOMS OF POSSIBLE DISORDERS ATTRIBUTED TO SOY
Always feeling cold or warm
Hair thinning or loss
Lethargy or low blood pressure
Sore bones and joints
Watery or swelling eyes
If you have thyroid problems and/or weight gain problems soy may be the problem. Yes soybeans! Soybean oil actually promotes weight gain because of its harmful effects on the thyroid gland (the gland that controls metabolism). Vegetable oils that are polyunsaturated, like soybean oil, depress the thyroid's activity which in turn reduces your metabolic rate and therefore promotes weight gain. Ray Peat, PhD, is an endocrinologist who specializes in the study of hormones says that unsaturated oils like soybean oil block thyroid hormone secretion, its movement into the circulation, and its response that it has on tissues. When the thyroid is effected in this way, your metabolism slows down leading to weight gain. Soybeans are particularly bad because of the antithyroid chemicals that they contain.
Sound unbelievable? Read the studies!
1. Divi, R. L., Chang H. C., Doerge D. R. 1997. Anti-thyroid isoflavones from soybean: Isolation, characterization, and mechanisms of action. Biochemical Pharmacology 54(10).
2. Shepard, T.H. 1960. Soybean goiter. New England Journal of Medicine 262.
By: William Wong N.D., Ph.D., and Member World Sports Medicine Hall of Fame
This piece will be short and very much to the point. As Americas largest cash crop soy is being touted as having a myriad of health benefits. Far from! Soy is poison, period! All paid for opinion to the contrary.
What's bad about soy?
Contains Isoflavones (Genistein and Daidzein). In soy the isoflavones are built in insecticides. If they kill bugs are they good for humans?
Isoflavones are estrogen like substances which have the same effect as the bodies estrogen. Cancer comes from having too much estrogen. Irritability and mood swings, fat gain from the waist down, fibrocystic breast disease uterine fibromas are all associated with estrogen dominance. Instead of helping prevent the bad effects of environmental or natural estrogen dominance soy isoflavones are now known to increase the bad effect of estradiol and estrone the two major bad guys of the estrogen family. (1,2,3).
Kills testicular tissue. In men it permanently reduces testicular function and lowers Lutinizing Hormone production. LH is what signals your testicles to work. This increases the probability of estrogen dominance in men with its hair loss, swollen and cancerous prostates. (4,5). Male children fed soy formulas and soy products may not ever get to like girls. Dorris Rapp MD, the worlds leading pediatric allergist, asserts that environmental and food estrogens are responsible for the increase in male homosexuality and the worldwide reduction in male fertility. (6).
Isoflavones decrease thyroid hormone production. This can stunt children's growth and make the rest of us tired and fat. (7,8,9).
Female children fed the estrogens in soy formula and products hit puberty very very early sometimes as young as age 6 to 8! (10).
Pregnant women eating soy products may effect the sexual differentiation of their children. Studies show malformations of the reproductive tract or offspring born with both male and female sexual organs. (11).
Isoflavones decrease GOOD cholesterol (HDL). (12,13).
Soy contains Phytin, which takes essential minerals such as iron, zinc, magnesium etc. out of the body before they can be absorbed. Also soy contains Trypsin inhibitors block this vital anti cancer enzyme, anti fibrosis enzyme. (14).
A 7000 man 30 year epidemiological study done in Hawaii shows soy is connected with a higher rate of Vascular Dementia (Alzheimer's disease). (15,16).
Any opinions to contradict the facts noted above have been paid for by the Agribusiness giants Monsanto and Archer Daniels Midland. Once public knowledge of their manipulation of public opinion and of the FDA becomes widely known, expect monster class action lawsuits against these folks. They'll deserve it in spades!
Be well and God bless,
Dr. William Wong
Casanova, M., et al.; Developmental effects of dietary phytoestrogens in Sprague -Dawley rats and interactions of genistein and daidzein with rat estrogen receptors alpha and beta in vitro. Toxicol Sci 1999, Oct.; 51 (2): 236-44.
Santell, L., et al.: Dietary genistein exerts estrogenic effects upon the uterus, mammary gland and the hypothalamic / pituitary axis in rats. J. Nutr 1997 Feb.;127 (2): 263-9.
Harrison, R.M., et al.; Effect of genistein on steroid hormone production in the pregnant rhesus monkey. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999 Oct.; 222(1): 78-84.
Nagata, C., et al.; Inverse association of soy product intake with serum androgen and estrogen in Japanese men. Nut Cancer 2000; 36(1): 14-8.
Zhong, et al.; Effects of dietary supplement of soy protein isolate and low fat diet on prostate cancer. FASEB J 2000; 14(4): a531.11.
Rapp, Dorris J., Is This Your Child's World. Bantam Books 1996. Page 501.
Divi, R. L., Chang, H.C. and Doerge, D.R.; Identification, characterization and mechanisms of anti-thyroid activity of isoflavones from soybeans. Biochem Pharmacol 54:1087-1096, 1997.
Fort, P., Moses, N., Fasano, M. Goldberg, T. and Lifshitz, F.; Breast and soy formula feedings in early infancy and the prevalence of autoimmune disease in children. J Am Coll Nutr 9:164-165, 1990.
Setchell, K. D. R., Zimmer-Nechemias, L., Cai, J. and Heubi, J.E.; Exposure of infants to phytoestrogens from soy based infant formula. Lancet 350:23-27, 1997.
Irvine, C.H.G., Fitzpatrick, M.G. and Alexander, S.L.; Phytoestrogens in soy based infant foods: Concentrations, daily intake and possible biological effects. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 217:247-253, 1998.
Levy, J.R., Faber, F.A., Ayyash, L. and Hughes, C.L.; The effect of prenatal exposure to phytoestrogens genistein on sexual differentiation in rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 208:60-66, 1995.
Ashton, E., Ball, M.; Effects of soy as tofu vs. meat on lipoprotein concentrations. Eur J Clin Nutr 200 Jan; 54(1):14-9.
Madani, S., et al.: Dietary protein level and origin (casein and highly purified soybean protein)
affect hepatic storage, plasma lipid transport, and antioxidative defense status in the rat. Nutrition 2000 May;16(5):368-375.
Leiner, I.; The Intraperiotoneal toxicity of concentrations of the soybean trypsin inhibitor. J Biol Chem 193:183 (1951).
White, L., Petrovitch, H., Ross, G.W. and Masaki, K.H.: Association of mid life consumption of tofu with late life cognitive impairment and dementia: The Honolulu-Asia Anti Aging Study, The Neurobiol of Aging 17 (suppl. 4):S121, 1996a.
White, L, Petrovitch, H., Ross, G.W., Masaki, K.H., Abbot, R.D., Teng, E.L., Rodriguez, B.L., Blanchette, P.L., Havlik, R.J., Wergowske, G., Chiu, D., Foley, D.J., Murdaugh, C. and Curb, J.D.; Prevalence of dementia in older Japanese-American men in Hawaii. JAMA 276:955-960, 1996b
For many people, the most shocking new revelations about soy are not the increased risks of breast and other cancers [1-2], the link to childhood leukemia [3-6], the failure to prevent heart disease [7-8], infertility [9-10], or thyroid damage, with its symptoms of weight gain, fatigue and depression [11-13]. What really startles many of us is soy's impact on male sex organs, estrogen overload, testosterone suppression, and premature female puberty .
The root sex problem is that soy is loaded with isoflavones, plant estrogens that operate like human female estrogen, which occurs naturally in our bodies, male and female. These "phytoestrogens" cause serious developmental problems. They're only 1/1,000th to 1/1,200th the potency of human estrogen, ounce for ounce, but it's common for babies to consume them in such large quantities that they overwhelm their bodies' delicate testosterone-estrogen balance, leaving their victim male or female with a wild variety of lifelong symptoms, sometimes even disfigurement [15-19].
Toxicologists estimate that an infant fed exclusively on soy formula is getting the equivalent of three to five birth control pills per day . One study found that soy-fed babies had 13,000 to 22,000 times more estrogen in their blood than milk-fed babies .
These are not just curious, isolated data. One percent of U.S. girls are now growing breasts or pubic hair before age three. By age eight, either of these two abnormalities is appearing among 14.7 percent of white girls and a staggering 48.3 percent of black girls . Why so many black girls? Probably because they are more likely to be given soy infant formula. They are being robbed of their girlhood. Soy formula-fed girls are also more likely to have lifelong menstrual problems (primarily longer and more painful periods), hormonal changes associated with infertility, and other health problems. If this isn't a national medical emergency, I don't know what is.
The situation is just as bad for boys. Boy babies fed soy formula may go into puberty late or not at all. Some of these boys are so feminized that their breasts grow but their penises don't. Some mature into adults with penises not much bigger than the ones they were born with! Others might look normal and go through puberty on time, but can't father children because their sperm are too few in number (or poor swimmers and/or unable to fertilize eggs) . Sperm counts dropped 50 percent between 1939 and 1990 and are continuing to go down at the rate of 2 percent per year . (Another national emergency.) Men make sperm throughout their lives, of course, but production ability can be seriously hurt by soy during the first trimester of pregnancy, during infancy, and early childhood [24-25].
It's not just the sex organs that are affected during the key developmental phases of pregnancy and infancy. The brain, too, can be irrevocably changed by excess estrogens, which suppress testosterone. That may contribute to altered sexual behavior and sexual preference. Estrogenized males of many species are more likely to suffer from ADD/ADHD and even to perform more like females on tests [26-28].
Soy won't hurt a grown man the same way. It's apt to flatten his libido, but won't affect the size or shape of his sex organs. (Against my better judgment, I took a national TV interview last week. They handed a bowl of soy stuff to a guy in the studio audience. After he had munched for thirty seconds, the host asked him, "Well, you startin' to feel kinda swishy yet?" Good comedy, but highly misleading.)
However, soy can cause gynecomastia (female-looking breasts) within months. A recent study at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill showed that men eating whopping amounts of soy experienced breast enlargement and even some nipple discharge . They ate a lot more soy than most of us would, but it serves as fair warning.
Moms eating soy during pregnancy are putting their babies at risk because isoflavones swim right through the placenta [30-31]. This can mess up hormonal balance, especially during the first three months, when male fetuses are in a crucial developmental stage and absolutely must have adequate testosterone. Those that get plant estrogens instead of mom's testosterone are at risk for birth defects like cryptorchidism (undescended testicles) and/or hypospadias, in which the opening of the penis is underneath instead of at the tip . Although undescended testicles can be corrected fairly easily through surgery, hypospadias is far more serious. In worst case scenarios, it can require as many as 10 separate operations. Even then, the boy may not grow up to be an adult male with full sexual function. His penis typically never gets longer than one and a half inches .
Hypospadias is on the rise in the U.S. and Europe, and now occurs in one out of 125 births . This coincides with the greater numbers of industrial chemicals in the environment, but also with the growing popularity of vegetarian and vegan diets. A British study in 2000 showed that vegetarian mothers are five times more likely to give birth to a boy with hypospadias than mothers who eat a varied diet . Sadly, vegan moms-to-be think they are eating healthfully when they swig soy milk, nosh on soy nuts, and eat veggie burgers. The tragic result can be undescended testicles, hypospadias or even homosexuality. No study says that soy dooms a child to homosexuality, but it's not hard to believe that at some point during pregnancy babies are hardwired for sexual preference. (See the Psychological Medicine article in endnote 27 below.)
Pediatricians are seeing so many over-estrogenized boys today with breasts, delayed puberty and /or behavioral problems that they've come up with the terms "Developmental Estrogenization Syndrome" and "Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome" .
Right now, no evidence indicates that soy during childhood or adulthood is likely to change sexual preference. The danger zone is the first three months of both pregnancy and infancy, when male physiology and brain circuitry are still developing. In other words, a girl-chasing, football-playing college boy won't go gay even if he becomes a vegetarian or snacks all day on soy energy bars. (He might develop thyroid or other health problems or lose most of his libido, though.)
My larger concern is that the increasing number of less robust 15-year-olds who are already "struggling with their sexual identity" will be shoved over that thin line into homosexuality. No, they won’t wake up some morning with floppy wrists and a nasal lisp, but they may begin to gravitate toward social circles where they feel more comfortable and less expected to be rowdy or brag about a string of sexual conquests. And once a teen is ensconced in a homosexual milieu, breaking free from it could mean abandoning his best friends.
Does the idea that soy can cause so much trouble sound like Rutz sensationalism? Don't just take my word for it. Here's what government health experts in Israel and France have decided: The Israeli Health Ministry has looked long and hard at the evidence and concluded that its citizens won't "be fruitful and multiply" if they eat too much soy. It has warned that babies should not receive any soy formula, that children to age 18 should not eat soy more than once a day (to a maximum of 3 times a week), and that adults should beware because of breast cancer and adverse effects on fertility .
The French, meanwhile, intend to maintain their reputation as ardent lovers. Food manufacturers in France will soon have to remove those dangerous plant estrogens from soy formula and to put warning labels on soyfoods and soy milk. French Food Agency experts see the biggest risks as being to children under three and women who have been diagnosed with or have breast cancer in their families . The British Dietetic Association also warns parents to avoid soy formula .
Lots of Americans accept everything our FDA and NIH say as gospel. Those poor souls are now in danger because their trusted government watchdogs have yet to bark any warnings about soy. However, Daniel Sheehan, PhD, one of the FDA's top toxicologists, has warned that that infants fed soy-based formulas have been placed at risk in a "large, uncontrolled and basically unmonitored human infant experiment."
Do you really want to put your child into that experiment?
1. Fallon, S, Daniel KT, Sanda W. Responses to Docket 2004Q-0151 Solae Company Health Claim on Cancer. Documents submitted to the FDA, June 14, 2004, January 20, 2005 and April 11, 2005. Posted at www.westonaprice.org under "Soy Alert."
2. Daniel, Kaayla T. The Whole Soy Story: The Dark Side of America's Favorite Health Food (New Trends, 2004).379-394. Overview of how soy can cause, contribute to or accelerate the growth of cancers, including 131 references. Includes about 200 real-life horror stories that will make you run screaming into the kitchen and toss out anything with soy on the label!
3. Strick R, Strissel PL et al. Dietary bioflavonids induce cleavage in the MLL gene and may contribute to infant leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2000, 25,97, 9, 4790-95.
4. Editorial. Infantile leukemia and soybeans a hypothesis. Leukemia, 1999, 13, 317-20.
5. Ross JA, Potter JD et al. Maternal exposure to potential inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase II and infant leukemia (United States) a report from the Children's Cancer Group, Cancer Causes Control, 1996,7, 581-590.
6. Hengstler JG, Helmerdingert CK et al. Dietary topoisomerase II- poisons: contribution of soy products to leukemia? EXCL J, 2002, 1, 8-14.
7. Sacks FM, Lichtenstien A et al. Soy protein, isoflavones and cardiovascular health: an American Heart Association Science Advisory for professionals from the nutrition committee. Circulation, 2006, Feb 21, 113, 7, 1034-44. Epub Jan 17, 2006.
8. Stauffer BL, Konhilas JP et al. Soy diet worsens heart disease in mice. J Clin Invest, 2006, Jan, 116, 1, 209-16.
9. Daniel op cit. 357-78. Overview of soy and infertility with 103 references.
10. Jefferson WN, Padilla-Banks E, Newbold RR. Adverse effects on female development and reproduction in CD-1 mice following neonatal exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein at environmentally relevant doses. Biol Reprod, 2005, Oct; 73, 4, 798-806. Epub June 1, 2005. A recent, well-designed National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences study.
11. Daniel, Kaayla T. op cit, 311-330. Comprehensive overview of the scientific literature on soy and thyroid disease with 80 references.
12. Ishizuki Y, Hirooka et al. The effects on the thyroid gland of soybeans administered experimentally in healthy subjects. Nippon Naibundi Gakkai Zasshi, 1991, 67, 622-629. Translation by Japan Communication Service, Wellington, NZ.
13. Divi RL, Chang HC, Doerge DR. Antithyroid isoflavones from soybean. Biochem Pharmacol, 1997, 54, 1087-1096.
14. Daniel, Kaayla T. op cit, 331--378. Overview of the scientific literature on the effects of soy formula and soy foods on male and female reproductive system development with 201 references.
15. Ibid. 295-309 and 331-378.
16. Franke, AA, Custer LG et al. Quantification of phytoestrogens in legumes by HPLC. J Agric Food Chem, 1994, 42, 1905-13.
17. Markiewicz J, Garey J et al. In vitro bioassays of non-steroidal phytoestrogens. J Steroids Biochem Mol Biol, 1993, 45, 5, 399-405.
18. Irvine CHG, Fitzpatrick MG, Alexander SL. Phytoestrogens in soy-based infant foods: concentrations, daily intake and possible biological effects. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 1998, 217, 247-253.
19. Setchell KDR, Zimmer-Nechemias L et al. Exposure of infants to phyto-oestrogens from soy-based infant formula. Lancet, 1997, 350, 9070.
20. Office of the Swiss Federal Health Service Bulletin #28, July 20, 1992.
21. Setchell KDR, Zimmer-Nechemias L et al. Isoflavone content of infant formulas and the metabolic fate of these phytoestrogens in early life. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998, 69 (suppl) 1453S-61S.
22. Giddens, Herman et al. Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practice. Study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network, 1997, 99, 4, 505-512.
23. Daniel, Kaayla. op cit. 332-339, 365-374.
24. Sharpe R, Shakkeback N. Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? Lancet, 1993, 341, 1292-1345.
25. Auger J, Kunstmann J et al. Decline in semen quality among fertile men in Paris during the past 20 years. NEJM, 1995, 332, 5, 281-85.
26. Hines M. Hormonal and neural correlates of sex-typed behavioral development in human beings. In Marc Haug, ed. The Development of Sex Differences and Similarities in Behavior (Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic, 1993). 131-147.
27. Harrison PJ, Everall IP et al. Is homosexuality hardwired? Sexual orientation and brain structure. Psych Med, 1994, 24, 811-16.
28. Lund TD, West TW et al. Visual spatial memory is enhanced in female rats BMC Neurosci, 2001, 1, 1-13.
29. Squires, Sally. Nutrition not for women only. Boys and men can benefit from soy too. Washington Post, June 8, 2004. Hard to believe, but the Washington Post diet columnist gave this a positive spin despite the report of breast enlargement, nipple discharge, and lowered testosterone!
30. Foster WG, Chan S et al. Detection of phytoestrogens in samples of second trimester amniotic fluid. Toxicol Letter, 2004, 129, 3, 199-205.
31. Doerge DR, Churchwell MI et al. Placental transfer of the soy isoflavone genistein following dietary and gavage administration to Sprague Dawley rats. Reprod Toxicol 2001, 15, 2, 105-10.
32. Daniel, Kaayla. op cit, 370-374. Overview of male fetal development, hormonal needs, endocrine disruption caused by soy backed by numerous scientific references, including textbooks.
33. Baskin, Laurence, ed. Hypospadias and Genital Development, Advances in Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol 545. (N.Y. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2004. The definitive textbook.
35. North K, Golding J. A maternal diet in pregnancy is associated with hypospadias. BJU Int, 2000, 35, 107-13.
36. Baskin, op cit.
37. Siegel-Itzkovich J. Health committee warns of potential dangers of soya. BMJ, 2005, July 30, 331, 7511, 254.
38. Press Release, AFSSA (Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments (French Food Safety Agency), March 9, 2005,Translation available online at www.soyonlineservice.co.nz.
39. British Dietetic Association. Paediatric group position statement on the use of soya protein for infants. J Fam Health Care, 2003, 13, 4, 93.